Event report: ApacheCon North America, 2017, Miami

Event Report, ApacheCon North America 2017

May 15-19, 2017

(This is an abridged version of the report I sent to my manager.)

Last week I attended ApacheCon North America in Miami. I am the conference chair of ApacheCon, and have been for on and off for  about 15 years. Red Hat has been a sponsor of ApacheCon almost every single time since we started doing it 17 years ago. In addition to being deeply involved in specific projects, such as Tomcat, ActiveMQ, and Mesos, we are tangentially involved in many of the other projects at the Apache Software Foundation.

Presentations from ApacheCon may be found at https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLbzoR-pLrL6pLDCyPxByWQwYTL-JrF5Rp (Yes, that’s the Linux Foundation’s YouTube channel – this ApacheCon was produced by the LF events team.)

I’d like to draw specific attention to Alan Gates, at Hortonworks, who has developed a course to train people at the company in how to work with upstream projects. He did this because, as the company expanded from a small group of founders who deeply understood open source, to thousands of employees who kinda sorta got it, but not always.


Also of great interest was the keynote by Sandra Matz about what your social media profile tells the world about you. It’s worth watching all the way to the end, as she doesn’t just talk about the reasons to be terrified of the interwebs, but also about how this kind of analysis can actually be used for good rather than evil.

Event report: Red Hat Summit, OpenStack Summit

Event report: Red Hat Summit, OpenStack Summit

May 1-5, 2017 and May 8-11, 2017

During the first two weeks of May, I attended Red Hat Summit, followed by OpenStack Summit. Since both events were in Boston (although not at the same venue), many aspects of them have run together.

Mini-cluster

On the first day of Red Hat Summit, I received the mini-cluster, which had been built in Brno for the April Brno open house. There were one or two steps missing from the setup instructions, so with a great deal of help from Hugh Brock, it too most of the first day to get the cluster running. We’ll be publishing more details about the mini-cluster on the RDO blog in the next week or two. However, most of the problems were 1) it was physically connected incorrectly (ie, my fault) and 2) there were some routing table changes that were apparently not saved after initial setup.

Once the cluster was up, we connected to the ManageIQ cluster on the other side of our booth, and they were able to manage our OpenStack deployment. Thus, we were able to demonstrate the two projects working together.

In future events, we’d like to bring more projects into this arrangement – say, use Ceph for storage, or have ManageIQ managing OpenStack and oVirt, for example.

After we got the cluster working, in subsequent days, we just had to power it on, follow the startup instructions, and be patient. Again, more details of this will be in the RDO blog post in the coming  weeks.

Upcoming CentOS Dojos

I had conversations with two groups about planning upcoming CentOS Dojos.

The first of these will be at Oak Ridge National Labs (ORNL), and is
now tentatively scheduled for the first Tuesday in September.  (If you saw my internal event report, I mentioned July/August. This has since changed.) They’re interested in doing a gathering that would be about both CentOS and OpenStack, and draw together some of the local developer community. This will be held in conjunction with the local LOPSA group.

The second Dojo that we’re planning will be at CERN, where we have a great relationship with the cloud computing group, who run what we believe to be the largest RDO installation in the world. We have a tentative date of October 20th, immediately before Open Source Summit in Prague to make it easier to combine two trips for those traveling internationally. This event, too, would cover CentOS topics as well as OpenStack/RDO topics.

If you’re interested in participating in either one of these events, you need to be on the centos-promo mailing list. Send mail to centos-promo-subscribe@centos.org to subscribe, or visit https://lists.centos.org/mailman/listinfo/centos-promo for the
clicky-clicky version.

General Impressions

The Community Central area at Red Hat Summit was awesome. Sharing center stage with the product booths was a big win for our upstream first message, and we had a ton of great conversations with people who grasped the “X is the upstream for Red Hat X” concept, seemingly, for the first time. The “The Roots Are In The Community” posters resonated with a lot of people, so huge thanks to Tigert for pulling those together at the last minute.

The collaboration between RDO and ManageIQ was very rewarding, and helped promote the CloudForms message even more, because people could see it in action, and see how the communities work together for the greater good of humanity. I look forward to expanding this collaboration to all of the projects in the Community Central area by next year.

The space for Red Hat Summit was huge, making the crowd seem a lot smaller than it actually was. The opposite was true for  OpenStack Summit, where it was always crowded and seemed very busy, even though the crowd was smaller than last year.

 

Where next?

In three weeks I’ll be heading to the High Performance Computing event in Frankfurt. My mission there is to talk with people that are using CentOS and RDO in HPC, and collect user stories.

Admitting when you’re wrong

Today I received email from a service I use – Expensify. In this message, the CEO of the company acknowledged that the name that they had chosen for one of their services was a bad choice, and they were consequently changing it:

2) “Wingman” renamed to “Copilot”
Remember how we had the genius idea of naming our amazing delegated access feature (where one user can sign in to another’s account to help them out) “Wingman”? As a child of the 80’s I just assumed that name conjured up images of Top Gun fighter jets and double high-fives in everyone. But it turns out that to the children of the 90’s and beyond, it means cruising bars and picking up chicks — who knew? Actually, almost everyone it seems. So, bowing to the wisdom of the crowd, “Wingman” is now the less-offensively named “Copilot”. My bad!

Meanwhile, the President of the United States of America made a typo on Twitter (no big deal, we’ve all done it) and then, rather than just saying “oops”, sent his press secretary out on stage to claim that it was intentional – a coded message, no less.

There’s a video at http://thehill.com/homenews/administration/335809-spicer-offers-cryptic-explanation-for-trump-covfefe-tweet if you missed it, or don’t believe me.

One of the benchmarks of becoming an adult is an ability to admit an error. One of the marks of being a child is that one defends one’s mistakes, even when they are inconsequential, like a typo.

One day, I hope we have an adult in the White House again.

Why I love ApacheCon 

This is the lightning talk I gave this evening at ApacheCon: 

ApacheCon is a high point of my year, every year, going back to March of 2000.

In late 1999, Ken Coar told me I should submit a talk for ApacheCon. Astonishingly, my talks were all accepted, and I found myself in Orlando speaking in front of a few hundred people who thought I knew what I was talking about. I have since made a career out of that particular game.

This is the 28th ApacheCon since the creation of the Apache Software Foundation. 29 if you count the event in 1998 before there was a Foundation. I don’t count it, because I missed it. I also missed the ApacheCon in Sinsheim, Germany, in 2012, for which I will never forgive my boss at the time. But I *think* I have been to more ApacheCons than anyone else. 27 of them.

I love being on stage. With hundreds of people looking at me, hanging on my every word, believing I know what I’m talking about.

But there’s other reasons I love ApacheCon. It’s the place I go to see some of my oldest friends – many of whom I first met at ApacheCon, including some new ones this week.

I love ApacheCon because it shows me that I’m not alone. As C. S. Lewis said, we read to know that we’re not alone. Except that he didn’t say it. It’s actually just a quote from a movie about him.

I love ApacheCon because I love Apache. And Hawaiian shirts. Shane’s lightning talks are another high point of my year, because they are both entertaining and informational. Except I hear he’s not giving one this year.

I love ApacheCon because of the passion that I see in the people that attend. People that love Apache, and also love solving actual real world problems. The sessions here at ApacheCon range from the esoteric and philosophical to the deeply practical, but at the heart of each one is a desire to solve problems in the real world. To scratch your own itch, as the saying goes.

I love ApacheCon because of our sponsors. Talking to sponsors about why they are here at ApacheCon has the effect of re-centering us. Sure, open source is about having fun and tinkering, but it’s also about solving problems for real people that rely on us. People that depend on Apache because we have a reputation for vendor-neutral, high-quality software which is sustainable because of those esoteric philosophies that we cling to even in the face of practical realities.

I love ApacheCon because of the time I’ve put into it. I’ve worked on ApacheCon for 18 years now. I often refer to ApacheCon as my life’s work. I spend hundreds of hours on it, and so do many other people, including our amazing producers, our numerous volunteers, our tireless Infra contractors, our beloved Melissa, and our supportive board of directors. ApacheCon is my sweat and tears, literally and figuratively. It’s older than two of my kids, and the oldest kid grew up knowing that Dad loves ApacheCon. The wall in my office is covered with ApacheCon attendee badges – 27 of them. And ApacheCon has become a part of my identity.

So as we look forward to the next ApacheCon (details coming very, very soon, I hope) we need to figure out what *you* want ApacheCon to be, and make it that, rather than doing it just because it’s what we do, and what we’ve always done. ApacheCon is about building community, more than it’s about anything else, and that’s really why I love ApacheCon. I love seeing communities come together around a common goal, and believing that I was a catalyst in making that happen.

So, thank you so much for coming to ApacheCon, my friends. I hope you’ll come again, and I hope that you’ll come to love it as much as I do. But that might not be possible.

No, Apache did not send you spam

Today, the ASF received yet another complaint from a distraught individual who had, in their opinion, received spam from the Apache Software Foundation. This time, via our Facebook page. As always, this is because someone sent email, and in that email is a link to a website – in this case, www125.forcetwo.men , which is displaying a default (ie, incorrectly configured) Apache web server, running on CentOS.

This distraught individual threatened legal action against the ASF, and against CentOS, under FBI, Swedish, and International law, for sending them spam.

No, Apache didn’t send you spam. Not only that, but Apache software wasn’t used to send you spam. Unfortunately, the spammer happened to be running a misconfigured copy of software we produced. That’s the extent of the connection. Also, they aren’t even compentent enough to correctly configure their web server.

It would be like holding  a shovel company liable because someone dug a hole in your yard.

Or, better yet, holding a shovel company liable because someone crashed into your car, and also happened to have a shovel in their trunk at the time.

We get these complaints daily, to various email addresses at the Foundation, and via various websites and twitter accounts. While I understand that people are irritated at receiving spam, there’s absolutely nothing we can do about it.

And, what’s more, it’s pretty central to the philosophy of open source that we don’t put restrictions on what people use our software for – even if they *had* used our software to send that email. Which they didn’t.

So stop it.

 

What does a community manager do

Last week I took some long-postponed vacation time and missed Stormy’s blogging prompt. But this particular question needs answering.

What does a community manager do?

Whenever people ask me what I do, I find myself struggling for words, because being a community manager is a daunting mishmash of interrelated tasks that range from marketing to HR to event management to journalism to … everything else.

During the Obama years, the term “community organizer” was bandied about, and that comes close to what a community manager does. And then there’s the confusion around the term “manager”, because I’m not a manager, and I don’t manage the community.

So what do I do?

Well, it’s a bit of this and a bit of that.

Cheerleading

A major task of community management is to be the lead cheerleader for the community. I’m the community manager for RDO, and so it’s my job to promote RDO to the various audiences that might care.

In the case of RDO, that includes the larger OpenStack community, cloud operators in the general IT work force, and also internally to people at Red Hat who need to be informed about what’s happening in the “upstream” community, and how it affects our “downstream” product, Red Hat OpenStack Platform.

To this end, I manage our Social Media presence, post updates to our mailing lists and blog,  make announcements on IRC, and so on. I also show up at conferences and answer questions from attendees, put together presentations to tell people about what we do, and speak at events.

Event planning

At Red Hat, we have an actual event planning team, and they are awesome at what they do – booking facilities, shipping stuff around, planning and setting up and tearing down the physical booths at events, coordinating and communicating with all of the people that will attend.

I don’t do that.

But I plan and coordinate events that my part of the community will show up to. I plan small social events around the main events. I make sure that those events work with the schedules of the people that I’m responsible for, and encourage them to come and bring their friends.

And I help out with small regional meetups, providing swag, as well as helping with (i.e., funding) travel and lodging for speakers that might not have budget to do that on their own.

Make personal connections

A major job of the community manager is to become an expert on the community members. Who knows what. Who is willing to speak on a particular topic. Who has the connections to make things happen.

Then, when a question is asked, or when someone has a need, it’s my job to connect them with the right person that can help them.

So … kind of like first-tier support, triaging problems, solving the ones that I’m able to, and referring to second-tier support those problems that are beyond my expertise.

There’s also some mentoring that goes in here – helping people new to the project know where to fit in, and where to find the information they need.

Look for stories

I look for stories of people using our project, and tell those stories to the world. In this part of the role, I’m the journalist, looking for ways to tell the story about how our project makes life easier. Much of this is amplifying stories that other people are telling. And then some of it is going out and gathering the stories, and then finding ways to tell those stories.

Everything else

While I don’t write code for the RDO project, I do a little bit of everything else – whatever people need done, I try to fill in, or find the right people to do those tasks.

So, that’s why it’s difficult to know how to answer when people ask me what I do at work.

Open source stats – but what do the numbers *mean*?

I recently sent a report to project management containing some numbers that purport to describe the status of the RDO project.

I got a long and thoughtful response from one of the managers – we’ll call him Mark – and it seems worthwhile sharing some of his insights. To summarize, what he said was, don’t bother collecting stats if they don’t tell a story.

1. Focus on the goals

Listing a bunch of numbers without context – even with pretty graphs – doesn’t tell us anything unless you relate them to goals that we’re trying to achieve.

Several weeks ago I presented a “stakeholder review” to this same audience. Any statistics that I present in the future should be directly related to a goal in that review, or they are just meaningless numbers, and possibly a distraction, and, worse still, might cause people to work towards growing the wrong metric. (Google for “be careful what you measure” and read any of those articles for more commentary on this point.)

2. Focus on the people

One of the stats that I provided was about how certain words and phrases feature in the questions on ask.openstack.org. Mark looked beyond the numbers and saw three people who are very active on that website, two of whom are not obviously engaged in the RDO community itself. Why not? How can we help them? How can they help us? What’s their story? Why are we ignoring them?

3. Focus on the blips

In February, our Twitter mentions, retweets, visits, and so on, went through the roof. Why? And why didn’t we do that same thing again in March?

As it turns out, in February there were two conferences that contributed to this. But, specifically, we captured a lot of video at those events, and the Twitter traffic was all around those videos. So clearly we should be doing more of that kind of content, right?

4. Ignore the stuff that doesn’t seem to mean anything

We track “downloads” of RDO, which roughly speaking means every time someone runs the quickstart and it grabs the RPM. Except RDO is on a mirror network, so that number is false – or, at best, it reflects what the trends might be across the rest of the mirror network. So we have no idea what this metric means. So why are we bothering to track it? Just stop.

5. Ask not-the-usual-suspects

This last one wasn’t one of Mark’s observations, but is what I’m taking from this interaction. We tend to ask the same people the same questions year after year, and then are surprised that we get the same answers.

By taking this data to a new audience, I got new answers. Seems obvious, right? But it’s the kind of obvious thing we overlook all the time. Mark provided insight that I’ve been overlooking because I’m staring so hard at the same things every day.

By the way, I’ve presented Mark’s insight very bluntly here, because it’s important to be clear and honest about the places where we’re not doing our job as well as we can be. Mark’s actual response was much kinder and less judgmental, because Mark is always kind and supportive.

3 ways you find the right type of contributor and where to find them

Another one of Stormy’s questions caught my eye:

“What are 3 ways you find the right type of contributor, and where do you find them?”

Thinking back to the last few years of work on RDO, several answers come to mind:

The people asking the questions

Watch the traffic on your mailing list(s) and on the various support forums. The people that are asking the most questions are often great potential contributors. They are using the project, so they are invested in its success. They are experiencing problems with it, so they know where there are problems that need to be addressed. And they are outspoken enough, or brave enough, to talk about their difficulties publicly, so they are likely to be just as willing to talk about their solutions.

These are usually good people to approach ask ask to write about their user experience. This can often be done collaboratively, combining their questions with the eventual answers that they encountered.

If they appear to be the type of person who is implementing solutions to their problems, ask them to bring those solutions back to your community for inclusion in the code.

In RDO, people that participate in the rdo-list mailing list will sometimes end up contributing their solutions to the project, and eventually becoming regular contributors. We probably need to do a better job of encouraging them to do this, rather than just hoping it’s going to happen on its own.

The people answering the questions

In watching the question-and-answer on ask.openstack.org I often see names I don’t recognize, answering questions related to RDO. Sometimes these are Red Hat engineers who have recently joined the project, and I haven’t met yet. But sometimes, it’s people from outside of Red Hat who have developed expertise on RDO and are now starting to pay that back.

These are the people that I then try to approach via the private messaging feature of that website, and ask them what their story is. This occasionally evolves into a conversation that brings them to more active involvement in the project.

Most people like to be asked, and so asking someone specifically if they’d be willing to come hang out in the IRC channel, or answer questions on the mailing list, tends to be fairly effective, and is a good step towards getting them more involved in the project.

The people complaining

This a tricky one. People complain because something is broken, or doesn’t work as they expect it to. The traditional response to this in the free software world is “Patches Welcome.” This is shorthand for “Fix it yourself and stop bugging me.”

The trick here is to recognize that people usually take the trouble to complain because they want it to work and they’re looking for help. This passion to just make things work can often be harnessed into contributions to the project, if these people are treated with patience and respect.

Patience, because they’re already frustrated, and responding with frustration or defensiveness is just going to make them angry.

Respect, because they are trying to solve an actual real world problem, and they’re not just there to hassle you.

It’s important that you fix their problem. Or at least, try to move them towards that solution.

Once the problem is addressed, ask them to stay. Ask them to write about their situation, and the fix to it. Ask them to stick around and answer other questions, since they have demonstrated that they care about the project, at least to the point of getting it working.

When people complain about your project, you also have a great opportunity to brush them off and persuade them that you are uncaring and unwelcoming, which they will then go tell all of their friends and Twitter followers. This can be a very expensive thing to do, for your community. Don’t do that.

When people come to #rdo on Freenode IRC to ask their RDO and OpenStack questions, I frequently (usually) don’t know the answer myself, but I try to make an effort to connect them with the people that do know the answer. Fortunately, we have an awesome community, and once you bring a question to the attention of the right person, they will usually see it through to the right solution.

Retaining community contributors

Stormy, at OpenSource.com, recently asked the question “What are 10 steps to keeping new contributors once you have their attention”

I’m not sure I have 10, but here’s what I’d say:

Celebrate their contribution, loudly and publicly

People like to be noticed, and they like to be thanked. Tell them that you noticed their contribution by telling the whole world about what they did.

There’s a number of ways to do this, from tweeting every first contribution, to including a Thanks section in your monthly newsletter, to doing a weekly blog post that lists new contributors for that week. Whichever approach you take, make sure that you personally send them a message telling them about it, rather than just hoping that they notice it.

If you have very few new contributors every week/month, then take the time to describe what the new contributor did. If you have dozens every time, this can be more of a challenge, but sending them a personal note is still a very critical part of the process if you want them to stick around.

Give them the keys

A lot of people in open source think that everyone should have to earn their place on the contributor list, by consistent, high-quality contributions over a long period of time.

I’m at the other end of the spectrum. I think you should hand out committer rights like candy. If someone shows initiative and contributes once, give them the opportunity to contribute again, immediately, with no barrier to entry.

What’s the worst that can happen? You have to revert a patch. This is why you have revision control.

So, give them the keys on day one. But there’s a caveat here, which is the next item on my list:

Give constructive criticism

Nobody likes a patronizing pat on the head. Give constructive feedback. After thanking them, tell them patiently and kindly what they can improve. This shows that you consider them to be a contributor to a serious project, and not merely a statistic to report to your boss.

If you have a style guide, and they didn’t live up to it, point them to it, gently and kindly, and give them specific pointers on what they need to improve.

Don’t be one of those jerks that throws it back in their face with a nasty remark. That will guarantee that they won’t come back. Remember that your goal is to retain new contributors, and train them up in the way that your project operates, not merely to act as a filter to keep out unfavorable contributions.

Ask them to do it again, with a specific request

People like to be asked. Asking someone, personally, to do a particular task, is much more effective than a shotgun “Hey, can someone …” sent out to an anonymous faceless mob on a mailing list.

Once someone has contributed something, that’s your opportunity to say, “Hey, I notice that you have some interest in the WhizBang feature, and Ticket 31245 is about that, too. Maybe you could take a look?”

Ask them to write about it

The new contributor experience is a rare and valuable thing. You don’t know what it’s like any more. You remember bits of it, but mostly you’ve forgotten, and become jaded with your second, third, and 700th contribution.

Encourage this new contributor to write about their experience. What was too hard. What was fun. What was unexpected, frightening, exciting. Who helped them. Who got in their way.

These are hugely valuable data points for your project. And they are also a great way to tell this new contributor that their input is valuable, and that you’re trying to make your project more welcoming.

And, of course, once they have written about it, share it with the developer community, along with the name of the contributor, and say, here are some ways maybe we can make this better for the next person.

Point them to the documentation

You have docs, and then you have hidden docs, and then you have the stuff that “everybody knows”. Steer this new contributor to the docs, and take the opportunity to turn the other two categories into actual docs.

Some of this will come out of the blog posts that these new contributors write. Some you will need to write yourself, based on their feedback of the new contributor experience.

This is tedious, but, remember, you’re making an investment in the next time. The better you make this process, the easier it will be for the next person, and the sooner you can pass this part of the job on to someone else.

Ask them to mentor the next new contributor

Ask them to turn that first-timer experience into mentoring another first-timer, as soon as possible. They’ll have the recent experience. They’ll know the potholes that you have long since learned to steer around. They’ll know which people in the community are helpful, and which ones are jerks, who you’ve long ago dismissed as “Oh, that’s just how Larry is.”

What’s new in OpenStack Ocata

OpenStack Ocata has now been out for a little over a month – https://releases.openstack.org/ – and we’re about to see the first milestone of the Pike release. Past cycles show that now’s about the time when people start looking at the new release to see if they should consider moving to it. So here’s a quick overview of what’s new in this release.

First, it’s important to remember that the Ocata cycle was very short. We usually do a release every six months, but with the rescheduling of the OpenStack Summit and OpenStack PTG (Project Team Gathering) events, Ocata was squeezed into 4 months to realign the releases with these events. So, while some projects squeezed a surprising amount of work into that time, most projects spent the time on smaller features, and finishing up tasks leftover from the previous release.

At a high level, the Ocata release was all about upgrades and containers – themes that I heard from almost every team I interviewed. (For the full interview series, see https://goo.gl/3aCQ2d ) How can we make upgrades smoother, and how can we deploy bits of the infrastructure in containers. These two things are closely related, and there seems to be more cross-project collaboration this time around than I’ve noticed in the past.

And the themes of upgrades and containers will continue to be prominent in the Pike cycle.

Highlights in the Ocata cycle include:

Auto-healing: Work was done in Heat to make it easier to recover from service failure. When an outage is detected, you can have Heat automatically spin up a replacement service, and swap it out without any intervention on the part of the operator.

Composability: Composable roles are a feature whereby you can specify details of how things are deployed, rather than allowing OpenStack to choose. You can, for example, specify that a particular hardware configuration be used for particular services. This is termed Composable Roles. Work was done in Ocata to expand this to composable upgrades, so that these roles are respected across upgrades as well.

Multi-factor auth in Keystone: Work was done in Keystone to improve support of MFA, including OTP (One Time Password) support, and per-user token expiration rules.

NFV: Network Function Virtualization continues to be an area where we’re seeing a lot of activity, and so a lot of the work in Nova, Neutron, and various other projects focuses on these developments. NFV has become more stable in this release, and is more fully integrated into TripleO for ease of deployment. This effort is happening under the Apex project – https://wiki.opnfv.org/display/apex/Apex

Upgrades: Upgrades were a common theme across all projects, with the emphasis being the ability to upgrade from one release to the next with as close to zero downtime as possible. Much of this work centers around TripleO, Heat, and Mistral, for orchestration and automation of the process.

Containers: While centered around the Kolla project, containerization was a theme in many of the projects this cycle. The eventual goal, at least according to some, is that OpenStack services will be deployed in containers by default by the Pike release. This of course poses a real challenge for the Ocata -> Pike upgrade path (migrating from non-container to container in the course of the upgrade), and that’s something that the TripleO people are working hard on.

Security: TLS-everywhere made strides forward in Ocata, with connections between services moving to TLS. This involves changes to Barbican as well, for key management for the shared keys between services, to ensure that your traffic is secure between components of your cloud, which may be located in different data centers around the world.

Collaboration: Something I heard more this year than in previous years was talk of collaboration between projects. This has, of course, always been happening. However at the PTG in Atlanta, it was a major focus, with time set aside for cross-project meetings focusing on the interface between one service and another. I also heard from several people that the PTG allowed a focus, and a camaraderie, that was not possible when the design summit was part of OpenStack Summit. This resulted in fewer interpersonal tensions, and a lot more work getting done.

Everything else: The difficulty with OpenStack is that it’s just so big. While these are the things that stood out to me, someone else is likely to pull out different highlights, depending on their interests. So I encourage you to look at some of the other “What’s new in Ocata” articles out there, including especially “53 new things to look for in OpenStack Ocata” – https://www.mirantis.com/blog/53-new-things-to-look-for-in-openstack-ocata/ and, if you have a lot of time, or have interest in a particular project, check out the official release notes – https://releases.openstack.org/ocata/  And take a moment to watch my interviews with various Red Hat OpenStack engineers, from the Atlanta PTG, here: https://goo.gl/3aCQ2d.

The Margin Is Too Narrow